Natural Language Processing Methods: Explained

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Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an area of study in computer science, information engineering, and linguistics. In other words, it finds out about the interactions between computers and human language. Here are some important facts to learn about the same.

Linguistics is the study of language. The advanced research in linguistics has found new ways and approaches to explore different areas. Hence, understanding Natural Language Processing may be helpful for us as it follows the easiest method.

NLP is an old area of study. If you are good in Deep Learning. In other words, you need to know that the traditional methods of NLP like breaking texts into smaller structures, parsing, annotate meanings are not needed anymore. Then, what is its actual uses today?

In cases where the labelled data are quite difficult to analyze, one needs to apply NLP. Also, in cases where high precision is required, the traditional methods of NLP work. Hence, for example, imagine that you have a tight deadline. The results need to be accurate else something terrible will happen like the product wouldn’t be launched. Hence, such circumstances, NLP methods will work brilliantly.

In linguistics, a sentence analysis takes place in four segments. In other words, NLP can be understood through these four segments or steps of linguistics.

Natural Language Processing: Morphology

It is the primary stage, where the analysis of words takes place. In other words, finding out how the words form and what is their relationship with each other takes place. Moreover, this study of word structure, some important elements are –

  • Prefixes/suffixes
  • Singularization/pluralization
  • Gender detection
  • Word inflection (tenses, case, voice, etc.)
  • Conjugation (inflection of verbs)
  • Declension (inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, etc.)
  • Lemmatization (the base form of the word, or the reverse of inflection)
  • Spell checking

Syntax

This one is the second step that analyzes the structure of a sentence. Then, it analyzes the relationship of multiple words in a sentence to form it. Also, a syntactical analysis takes place at the sentence level, whereas the morphological analysis occurs at the word level. In other words, the syntax is what we study as grammar in our school. In a computer programming language, NLP is the grammar for Hackers.

Semantics

The third step is all about the meaning that derives from a sentence. Based on the logic, semantics tries to figure out the purpose of a sentence. Therefore it comprises signifiers like words, phrases, signs, and symbols and signified or their denotation. In other words NLP, the semantics relates to Named Entity Recognition (NER), Relationship Extraction, and other processes.

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Natural Language Processing: Pragmatics

In this stage, one tries to analyze the entire text as a whole. Pragmatics is all about finding out the meaning of the book based on its context. It is a popular method used in multiple subjects like linguistics, philosophy, and sociology. These languages use pragmatics in various approaches like speech act theory, talk in interaction, conversational implicature. Some examples of pragmatics in Natural Language Processing will be Topic modelling, Summarization, Question & Answering.

Above is the functionality of Natural Language Processing explained through linguistics. One with a basic idea of language. Therefore, its different stages will be able to understand Natural Language Processing faster. If you want to know more about NLP and other methods, follow our website.